This page deals with economics and business issues,concerning Latin America, and the global economy.-
Friday, February 03, 2017
New premises about globalization
The world is facing new definitions and premises about globalization. Since early nineties, globalization was a kind of follow up of the “End of history” assessment, very popular at that time. Democracy and fee markets stands up, as the key inputs for endless economic progress, peace and stability. There was not too much to discuss about it.
Democracy spread out, such that more governments around the world (Latin America, Africa, East Europe) fit in with history. By the same token, free markets policies became the new orthodox to solve not only economic growth, but also social issues (poverty, inequality, unemployment).A few years later, it was clear that economic growth alone was not enough without complementary policies . Free trade agreement, came along as the next step to move deeper into global markets, and so the economy became global.-
This process lasted almost twenty years. Its outcome was mixed. On the one side (positive one), it meant better living conditions for millions of people, who were capable of getting out of poverty, increasing the share of middle income segments. Besides, the open access to knowledge throughout internet, and low prices of computers and communication technologies, created the virtual markets, a huge space for creativity, innovations, entrepreneurship and new ways to do business, increasing the social value of global networks. On the other side (the negative one), it became clear its weakness. The most significant one, was the financial crisis of 2008, and the subsequent perception that despite free markets efficiency, there was no way to avoid its failures at a global scale .Moral hazard, information asymmetry advantages, firms collusive actions, and reckless corporative behavior, which given the policy tools to deal with it, and without a global institutional framework, made the global economy unstable and much riskier on the long run. Regulations on its own, was not sufficient to cope with global markets either. For the sake of the argument, Central Banks (USA, European Union, Japan) had to fight hard (2008-2017), to get back the fundamental of macroeconomics.
From the political and geopolitical side, globalization did not make the world safer and a more peaceful place. Unconventional wars, local rivalries and short term nationalisms, killed more people in the last decade of the XX century, (United Nations, estimates 5 million people), than in the previous 25 years(1975-1990).Besides ,the gap between developed and underdeveloped countries did not close .It became wider as the winners displace the losers, which force them to act politically, no matter the economy cost . The insufficient global Governance, was out paced by events seemed unexpected, although they should have taken into account in advance.
Thus, it seems that the current status of globalization and global economy, are suitable for new premises. So, Donald Trump became President of the USA, and the Brexit is already on schedule. Moreover, this year there are elections in key countries in Europe. Who can anticipate the outcome?. Uncertainty, is another unexpected outcome of globalization weakness.
The pressing question in Davos (2017), was: what come next?. Is Mr Trump´s Presidency willing to leave globalization, while others countries are eager to take its leadership?. An alternative question could have been: What about the new conditions for the USA economy, a commercial blocs by itself, to be part of the globalization the way it is in 2017? . After all, the terms of negotiations about it have changed, (outdated free trade agreement, E-commerce grows, weak property rights protection, dislocation of workers, and the like).Therefore, politics have something to say about it. Furthermore like any negotiation, mutually convenient deals (globalization is a deal), are the ones which are flexible, to make them more suitable to new developments.
It follows from he above that Globalization need a resetting, a new set of premises concerning the importance of stable economic growth, better (fair) trade policies, effective global governance, and more efficient way to solve social disequilibrium between the affluent and those who are left behind.
The other question at Davos(2017), was about the risk of moving back the history clock, concerning the survival of globalization. The real advantage and strength of Globalization, is in its ability to cope with new challenges, the way other alternatives (closed economies, dictatorships), can not do.Moreover, a different globalization,based on the new premises, may be the beginning of an up dated world(global) order.- .-