The key question is : Where do fears comes from ?. Of course there is no easy answer. Maybe it should be a matter of psychology, maybe. But, I do believe(my hypothesis)that it is matter of education and beliefs .-
1.-It is matter of education. Fear of freedom.Traditional education emphasizes discipline, obedience and standardization behaviour among young student, such as any one who get out of the line must be punish. Moreover, education was suited to match a production system requirements, based on physical productivity and standardized production. It was not necessary to think about anything . Thinking was others ´s privilege, mainly those on the top of the management, whether it was private or public. From the public management point of view, it was necessary to do just the minimum . Public management in Latin America, has been inspired by its colonial foundation, which was based exclusively on tax collection rather than promoting local business or entrepreneur behaviour. After independence the tax collectors were replace by local authorities, who of course did not want t make major changes on the way the State managed the economy.
On the broader view, our education system in Latin America is far from been competitive , just because by its nature it is not designed to foster self independent spirit ,character and competition .-
2.- It is matter of beliefs: Fear of democracy. Chile, .wanted in the mid eighties, to have a “protected democracy” so it was its constitution ´s inspiration(1980) . The current constitution (reformed in the year 2004) has a different kind of “protection”. While legislators, and politicians kept their tenure in the Senate, and in the lower house of legislation (8 and 5 years respectively), the Presidency was schedule for a four(4) year period, instead of the previously settled in 6 years . What does it means ? ..-
Fear of private business .In the eighties ,Hernando de Soto (Peruvian economist) wrote a book which might be described as the “fear to private enterprise”. To start a new business , it was necessary more than 360 days to match legal requirements, and to spend more than U$$1200 .The State with such a high entry costs ,made people to believe, than private business was something to be afraid of . Chile, currently considered a model for economic growth, in the period running from 1995-2007,has set tariff protection for some products (11), leading the trend for protectionism in Latin America.
3.- It is a matter of Attitude . Fear of risks.It is easier to be protected than to be on our own. Latin America cultural values ,are basically characterized by some sense of vulnerability, which lead people to seek protection in terms of always looking for other´ s certainties instead of our own uncertainties . In most cases ,the State assume that protecting role Alternatively ,it might be the social network instead of personal credentials .-
Once upon a time, some Latin America countries had such a huge amount of public employees , as it was the case in countries with bigger population. So, The State is deeply rooted in Latin America history and tradition.. To understand the nature of our fear ,is to understand the nature of the State: Self protected on the basis of fear.-